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Old 02-01-2005, 08:25 AM   #1 (permalink)
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Mohammad from Mecca to Medina

I have questions about the change in personality from Mohammad in Mecca then Mohammad in Medina.

Historians agree that there is a big difference between Mohammed's personality in Mecca and his personality after his migration to Medina.

In Mecca Mohammed was weak, struggling to be accepted, often mocked at and ridiculed. He tried to appeal to the people of Mecca by being compassionate and loving. His teachings condemned violence, injustice, neglect of the poor. However, after he moved to Medina and his followers grew in strength and number, he became a relentless warrior, intent on spreading his religion by the sword.

This change in Mohammed's personality becomes apparent by comparing the Meccan and the Medinan surahs. The following are some examples:

In surah 73:10 God tells Mohammed to be patient with his opponents "Be patient with what they say, and part from them courteously." While in surah 2:191 God orders him to kill his opponents "Kill them wherever you find them, and drive them out from wherever they drove you out..."

In surah 2:256 God tells Mohammed not to impose Islam by force "There is no compulsion in religion." While in verse 193 God tells him to kill whoever rejects Islam "Fight (kill) them until there is no persecution and the religion is God's."

In surah 29:46 God tells Mohammed to speak nicely to people of the Book (Christians and Jews) "Argue with people of the Book, other then evil doers, only by means of what are better! and say, we believe in what has been sent down to us and sent down to you. Our God is the same as your God, and we are surrendered to him." While in surah 9:29 God tells him to fight the people of the Book, "Fight those who do not believe in God and the last day...and fight People of the Book, who do not accept the religion of truth (Islam) until they pay tribute by hand, being inferior."

To justify this sudden change in the Quran's mood from peaceful to militant, conciliatory to confrontational, Mohammed claimed that it was God who told him so. It was God who abrogated the peaceful verses and replaced them by harsh ones.

However the truth of the matter, as Almaudoody puts it, is that Mohammed became strong enough to move from the stage of weakness to the stage of Jihad.

How can the nation of Islam reconcile these changes?
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Old 02-01-2005, 12:53 PM   #2 (permalink)
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Re: Mohammad from Mecca to Medina

Salaamu Alyckum



In surah 9:29 God tells him to fight the people of the Book, "Fight those who do not believe in God and the last day...and fight People of the Book, who do not accept the religion of truth (Islam) until they pay tribute by hand, being inferior"




Firstly : you must read this verses carefully and completely .

009.029 Fight against such of those who have been given the Scripture as believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, and forbid not that which Allah hath forbidden by His messenger, and follow not the Religion of Truth, until they pay the tribute readily, being brought low.”

You see that Allah doesn't call muslims to fight "people of the book" Just because of they are Christian or Jewish ,their are certain conditions that made some of the people of the books be evils and enemies of Muslims as mention in this verse .

- Doesn't believe in God

-Doesn't believe in the day of Judgement

-doesn't prohibit what Allah and his prophets forbid them to do .

-doesn't believe in his truth religion ,and he didn't said " your religion " or Islam religion " all the original heaven religions are truth religions because they are Allah religions.
Also in the same Surah Allah said to inform (Jewish) rabbis and the (Christian) monks that they didn’t follow Allah teaching that he will punish them , and he didn’t call Muslims to fight them , so The verses you mention for certain group of “people of the book at certain time and place .
: 9:34 O ye who believe! Lo! many of the (Jewish) rabbis and the (Christian) monks devour the wealth of mankind wantonly and debar (men) from the way of Allah. They who hoard up gold and silver and spend it not in the way of Allah, unto them give tidings (O Muhammad) of a painful torment "


Secondly : In the same Sura(9: AlTawbah ) which you mention that it is Medinan surahs and it is different From the Meccan surahs we read this verses :
009.004 Excepting those of the idolaters with whom ye (Muslims) have a treaty, and who have since abated nothing of your right nor have supported anyone against you. (As for these), fulfil their treaty to them till their term. Lo! Allah loveth those who keep their duty (unto Him).

009.006 And if anyone of the idolaters seeketh thy protection (O Muhammad), then protect him so that he may hear the Word of Allah, and afterward convey him to his place of safety. That is because they are a folk who know not.


You must know that Muslims in Madienah have relation with Jewish (Bani Garaidah ) and (Bani Al Nadeer ) prophet Mohameed made covenant with them , but they revoked this covenant and help Quraish ( which called Al Mashriekeen :the enemies of Muslims whom worshiped idols, or the infidels ,or disbelievers ) so this surah (9) actually talked about the conflict between Jewish “ people of the book “ and Muslims , in certain events.and not all people of the book .

that may indicate that the change in Mohameed not in his personality but in the conditiones around him , If he changed negatively as you read from some anti –islamic resource why he treated his own bitterest enemies in this way ,here is the noblest example for his personality (remember this is in Madienah after he became strong ). At the conquest of Mecca, he stood at the zenith of his power. The city which had refused to listen to his mission, which had tortured him and his followers, which had driven him and his people into exile and which had unrelentingly persecuted and boycotted him even when he had taken refuge in a place more than 200 miles away, that city now lay at his feet. By the laws of war he could have justly avenged all the cruelties inflicted on him and his people. But what treatment did he accord to them? Mohammad'sheart flowed with affection and he declared, "This day, there is no REPROOF against you and you are all free." "This day" he proclaimed, "I trample under my feet all distinctions between man and man, all hatred between man and man."

This was one of the chief objects why he permitted war in self defense, that is to unite human beings. And when once this object was achieved, even his worst enemies were pardoned. Even those who killed his beloved uncle, Hamazah, mangled his body, ripped it open, even chewed a piece of his liver.

About the tax which non-Muslims pay for the Islamic state ,you should know that Muslims also pay tax called (Zakat ) but if people live with Muslims just the the name of tax changed into (Jezzeah ).
Most of the verses of Al Quraan are respond to certain issues and problems occurred to Muslims and Allah guided them to deal with these issues or to solve these problems in the right wayes through Verses of Quraan transmitted from Allah to Mohameed by Jebrial (puh) ,So any one who research the different between Meccan and the Medinan surahs he should find that the Medinian Suras are concentrated on the building the Islamic society like which is forbidden in Islam (Moharaam)) or not Which accepted in Islam or not , and how Muslims should treat with each other in daily life Issues ,marriage , inherit …… , This is the reasons behind the differenced between Meccan and the Medinan surahs Which was changed his speach to his followers in Madinah .
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Old 02-01-2005, 01:05 PM   #3 (permalink)
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Re: Mohammad from Mecca to Medina

Thank you for your explanation on that verse Friend . I did not realize that in Islam Christianity is a Religion of Truth, I understood that we are a people of the book. So Im not going to be punished because I believe that the Holy Spirit and Jesus are also God?

What about these? Could you please explain these to me?

In surah 73:10 God tells Mohammed to be patient with his opponents "Be patient with what they say, and part from them courteously." While in surah 2:191 God orders him to kill his opponents "Kill them wherever you find them, and drive them out from wherever they drove you out..."

In surah 2:256 God tells Mohammed not to impose Islam by force "There is no compulsion in religion." While in verse 193 God tells him to kill whoever rejects Islam "Fight (kill) them until there is no persecution and the religion is God's."
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Old 02-01-2005, 03:58 PM   #4 (permalink)
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Re: Mohammad from Mecca to Medina

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Originally Posted by Faithfulservant
Thank you for your explanation on that verse Friend . I did not realize that in Islam Christianity is a Religion of Truth, I understood that we are a people of the book. So Im not going to be punished because I believe that the Holy Spirit and Jesus are also God?
Salaam

I can't say that "the Holy Spirit and Jesus are also God" was in the original teaching of Jesus , because it is clear in the Quraan that Jesus didn't said that about himself . but I can said that we Muslims didn't received a command from Allah or prophet Mohameed (puh) to fight or kill others because what they are believe . if they hear about the truth they carry their own responsibility in front of Allah.

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Old 02-01-2005, 05:43 PM   #5 (permalink)
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Re: Mohammad from Mecca to Medina

Quote:
Originally Posted by Friend

You see that Allah doesn't call muslims to fight "people of the book" Just because of they are Christian or Jewish ,their are certain conditions that made some of the people of the books be evils and enemies of Muslims as mention in this verse .

- Doesn't believe in God

-Doesn't believe in the day of Judgement

-doesn't prohibit what Allah and his prophets forbid them to do .

-doesn't believe in his truth religion ,and he didn't said " your religion " or Islam religion " all the original heaven religions are truth religions because they are Allah religions.

Question:
What about people who meet the above conditions (I don't believe in a Judgement Day, and I don't agree with the prohibitions in the Qur'an entirely, and I have no religion, and I don't necessarily accept the Judeo-Christian-Islamic idea of God) and are not "people of the Book"? If someone is say, Hindu, or Budhhist, are you required to fight them, since they meet the above criteria? Or does a Muslim simply defend her/his rights and not interfere in their ways if they do not interfere in his/her ways
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Old 02-01-2005, 05:46 PM   #6 (permalink)
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Re: Mohammad from Mecca to Medina

Quote:
Originally Posted by Faithfulservant
I did not realize that in Islam Christianity is a Religion of Truth, I understood that we are a people of the book
Assalam-o-Alaikum Faithfulservant,
Often non-muslims are not aware of what our view is on other religions. This is best done when asked specifically by a non-muslim to be explained, otherwise people feel that thier religion is being attacked and that is something that i wish to avoid as much as humanly possible. So, i wont do it right now. yes, the Jews and the Christians are 'People of the Book'.. the 'Religion of Truth' part needs to be explained as it is connected with the 'People of the Book' phrase but only if you ask.
Quote:
Thank you for your explanation on that verse Friend . I did not realize that in Islam Christianity is a Religion of Truth, I understood that we are a people of the book. So Im not going to be punished because I believe that the Holy Spirit and Jesus are also God?
Right now, i will say that Quran is very clear that if you die in a state of belief of associating partners with God, then you are condemned to Hell. God has said clearly in the Quran that He can forgive any sin as He Wills but not the sin of shirk [associating partners with Him or having polytheistic beliefs and so on]. So, you have time until you die.
Allah forgiveth not that partners should be set up with Him; but He forgiveth anything else, to whom He pleaseth; to set up partners with Allah is to devise a sin Most heinous indeed. [Yusuf Ali's Quran Translation, 4:48]
Also, see 4:116.
Yes, your belief that Jesus(peace be upon him) is the son of God and part of the Trinity comes within that perview.
They do blaspheme who say: "Allah is Christ the son of Mary." But said Christ: "O Children of Israel! worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord." Whoever joins other gods with Allah,- Allah will forbid him the garden, and the Fire will be his abode. There will for the wrong-doers be no one to help.[Yusuf Ali's Quran Translation, 5:72]
Just wanted to make that clear as I dont want you or anyone else to be under the wrong impression.
And Allah knows best.
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Old 02-02-2005, 09:23 AM   #7 (permalink)
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Re: Mohammad from Mecca to Medina

Ok.. so back to the question.. are you supposed to fight people that dont follow what Allah says? Including Christians?

"Fight those who do not believe in God and the last day...and fight People of the Book, who do not accept the religion of truth (Islam) until they pay tribute by hand, being inferior."

A fundemantal belief in Christianity is the trinity.

Thank you for your patience
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Old 02-03-2005, 06:36 PM   #8 (permalink)
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Re: Mohammad from Mecca to Medina

Quote:
Originally Posted by Faithfulservant
Thank you for your explanation on that verse Friend . I did not realize that in Islam Christianity is a Religion of Truth, I understood that we are a people of the book. So Im not going to be punished because I believe that the Holy Spirit and Jesus are also God?

What about these? Could you please explain these to me?

In surah 73:10 God tells Mohammed to be patient with his opponents "Be patient with what they say, and part from them courteously." While in surah 2:191 God orders him to kill his opponents "Kill them wherever you find them, and drive them out from wherever they drove you out..."

In surah 2:256 God tells Mohammed not to impose Islam by force "There is no compulsion in religion." While in verse 193 God tells him to kill whoever rejects Islam "Fight (kill) them until there is no persecution and the religion is God's."
Problem is, the quotes are out of context - so I should imagine it would be like when atheist critics hold up passages of the Joshuan massacres, or the lines about "jealous God", then presents them to a Christian and says "Where is this loving God you tell me about? You serve a violent following with violent motives".

Without being able to speak for Islam, and speaking entirely from outside of it, my perception is that the Qur'an begs patience and compassion to the nth degree, but makes the point that if someone keeps trying to slap you, then eventually you have to slap back. But only after patience and compassion has been tried.

Close?

By the way, I appreciate this thread raises some critical comments from other sites that might be seen as anti-Islamic, but I believe the intention raised is to try and determine what the attitude Islam has towards killing in general, as part of a genuine and honest attempt to find out more about Islam.
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Old 02-04-2005, 12:43 AM   #9 (permalink)
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Re: Mohammad from Mecca to Medina

Quote:
Originally Posted by I, Brian
Problem is, the quotes are out of context - so I should imagine it would be like when atheist critics hold up passages of the Joshuan massacres, or the lines about "jealous God", then presents them to a Christian and says "Where is this loving God you tell me about? You serve a violent following with violent motives".

Without being able to speak for Islam, and speaking entirely from outside of it, my perception is that the Qur'an begs patience and compassion to the nth degree, but makes the point that if someone keeps trying to slap you, then eventually you have to slap back. But only after patience and compassion has been tried.

Close?

By the way, I appreciate this thread raises some critical comments from other sites that might be seen as anti-Islamic, but I believe the intention raised is to try and determine what the attitude Islam has towards killing in general, as part of a genuine and honest attempt to find out more about Islam.
h| Brian,
Islamic Law allows one to forgive if one wants but also allows one to retaliate in answer in a just manner. Both options are available or any other mutually agreeable solution that can be worked out i guess. One has to see the situation at hand and then decide. Allah says to be patient and further says that Allah is with the patient ones. So, Islam exhorts people to be patient as it is better BUT, at the same time, gives every person thier right to justice.
Yes, the verses are out of context especially regarding Surah Taubah (CH. 9) in the sense that non-muslims do not know the background to its revelation. I re-read the background... it raised a few hairs. It was a do or die sort of situation at that time with multi-directional threats inculding the Roman Empire with its superior forces and arms. One could learn a bit of war strategy here as well if you read the whole background. I'll try and find the background for you guys to read so that you know the complete situation in which these verses were revealed. If i told you the odds the muslims were against, no one would say that the muslims could win, but they obviously did cause if they hadnt, Islam could have been wiped out right there cause all other enemies were waiting in the wings for the muslims to be defeated by the Romans. and then they could finish off what would have been left of them but since the muslims won against such a formidable foe against insurmountable odds, all the arab pagans who were enemies and also those hypocrites who had only become muslim to try to create unrest within the community, lost hope. It was a victory which was vital in every sense of the word.
Faithfulservant, i think Friend said something about 9:29 already. anyway, the background should add to that as well. And no it doesnt mean that if i see a Christian walking on the street I should chop his head off. There was a Christian Professor of mine who's office was 20 feet away from my own and he had been living here in Saudi Arabia for 30 years... he just retired a month ago and has gone back to america safe and sound and still a Christian. I think this example should help to remove some doubts.
Hope this helped.
And Allah knows best.
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Old 02-11-2005, 10:08 PM   #10 (permalink)
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On the Occasion of Hegira In Islamic world .

Salaamu Alyckum all

For the Muslim people, the most important date in the history of Islam is the hegira, or hijra, the emigration of Mohammed and his devoted followers from Mecca t. Medina . The Muslims consider their era to have begun with this date of Mohammed's emigration, which would have occurred between July and September, 622, on the Christian calendar. For the Islamic calendar, this is day one, the first day in the first year A.H. (After Hegira). The Muslims date everything from this date, much like the birth of Christ for Christians. Because of problems he was having in Mecca, Mohammed chose to take his followers to Medina, where Islam as we know it today could be born.

Around the year 619 A.D., Mohammed and his followers were growing tired of conditions they faced in the city of Mecca. Relationships with the authorities in Mecca had worsened, and the other tribes of the city had actually plotted to kill Mohammed. Furthermore, Mohammed had grown tired of preaching patience and perseverance to a handful of faithful companions, who in turn had to endure the scorn of Maccan officials. The revelations that he was proclaiming in Mecca had not established a new religion, they only created a 'religious mood' within his small circle of followers .Mohameed needed an opportunity to launch his teachings, and probably more importantly, a place to do so.

Around this same time, the nearby town of Yathrib came calling on Mohameed. The town was torn by internal feuds and violent disputes between the Arab and Jewish tribes who had settled there. The inhabitants and officials of Yathrib invited Mohameed to come there and be a leader in settling these disputes . Mohameed sent many of his faithful companions ahead of him, and shortly thereafter left himself along with a friend, Abu Baker The story goes that Mohameed and Abu Bakr had to hide in caves for three nights on their way to Yathrib, but managed to arrive safely. This date, known simply as the hegira, signaled a turning point in the evolution of Islam as a religion. Soon after the hegira, Yathrib became known as the "City of the Prophet," or Medina. And, it would be in Medina, not Mecca, that Islam became much more than a religious mood, it became an institution .

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Old 02-11-2005, 10:13 PM   #11 (permalink)
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The Story of Mohamed migration from Macca to Madinah

A meeting was held in their parliament house (Dar-ul-Nadwa). The proposal to arrest, chain or exile prophet Mohammed (puh) was not approved. But the suggestion by Abu Jahel to take one strong person from each tribe and to make combined fatal attack on Mohammed with sword was approved. In this way no one tribe could be held responsible for that. They thought that Mohammed(puh) and his allies had no strength to fight against all Arabs. This suggestion was unanimously approved and the planning for its execution immediately started. But Allah informed His beloved prophet about the obnoxious plan and ordered him to migrate from Mecca to Medina. In the night, some armed persons were seen moving about. They were ready to attack Mohammed (puh)according to their plan. The messenger of Islam advised his cousin Ali (May God was satisfied on him )to sleep in his bed covered with a sheet. He gave some more instructions and sent away from the house. At that moment Mohammed recited then verses of Surat Yasin:

"And We have put a bar in front of them and a bar behind them, and further, we have covered them up: So that they can not see ."(Surat Ya-Sin-9(

after that Mohammed (puh) moved through the siege of his enemies and they did not know anything about it. According to their program when the enemies entered the house of Mohammed, they were surprised to see Ali on his bed. They were highly disappointed not to find Mohammed there.

“Remember how the unbelievers plotted against thee, to keep thee in bounds, or slay thee, to get thee pit (of thy home). They plot and plan, and Allah too plan, but the best of planners is Allah (Al-Infal No.30 )

Mohammed traveled along with his friend Abu-Bakar throughout the night. Early in the morning, they reached cave which called "Thore Cave".) .The peoples of the Quraish went everywhere in and around Mecca to search for Mohammed. They announced a reward of hundred camels for his search. The next day, some people reached the area where Mohammed and Abu Bakar were taking refuge. They passed by the cave yet they could not discover anything. But what they saw was the cobweb on the entrance of the cave. They also saw there a bird nest with eggs. Abu Bakar got worried on seeing the enemies moving about . But the messenger of Allah consoled him and assured him of God's help. the Quraan explains the situation in this way:

If ye help not, (the prophet), (it is no matter): for Allah did indeed help him, when the Unbelievers drove him out: being the second of the two, were in the Cave, and he said to his companion, "Have no fear, for Allah is with us": then Allah sent down his peace upon him, and strengthened him with forces which ye saw not, and humbled to the depths the word of the Unbelievers. But the word of Allah is exalted to the heights: for Allah is exalted in might, wise.(At-Touba-40)

Prophet Mohammed (puh) and Abu Bakar remained for three days and nights in that cave. After making struggle for three days, the Quraish were tired and they went back to Mecca . After that Amar Bin Fahira,the servant of Abu Bakar reached there according to the plan with two white she-camels. When Mohammed entered Medina riding on a camel, the people kneel wished to escort the camel. Everyone wanted to be the host of Mohammed. The messenger of God asked them to let the camel wherever it wants to go. The camel will stay where Allah has commanded her to stay. And that place will be his abode. The she-camel of the messenger of Islam was passing through the streets of Medina and eventually entered the street called "Al-Najar". many people were following her. They were eager to know where the "Qaswa" would sit.

"Qaswa", the she-camel on which the Holy prophet was riding kept moving about in the streets of "Najar" until it reached an empty ground. The Qaswa stopped here and then sat on her knees. There was no house in the close vicinity of this empty ground. As soon as the Muslims reached Medina, they started building a mosque there.



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Old 02-13-2005, 02:01 PM   #12 (permalink)
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Re: Mohammad from Mecca to Medina

Quote:
Originally Posted by Faithfulservant
Ok.. so back to the question.. are you supposed to fight people that dont follow what Allah says? Including Christians?

"Fight those who do not believe in God and the last day...and fight People of the Book, who do not accept the religion of truth (Islam) until they pay tribute by hand, being inferior."

A fundemantal belief in Christianity is the trinity.
Thank you for your patience
h| everyone,
One thing that must be kept in mind is that the Quran was revealed in a span of approximately 23 years, not all at once. I'll do this in more than one post. yes, alot of reading will have to be done.
Now, lets get the background straight of Surah Taubah(Ch. 9) in this post.This Surah comprises of 3 discourses:
The first discourse (vv. 1-37), was revealed in Zil-Qa'adah A. H. 9 or thereabout. As the importance of the subject of the discourse required its declaration on the occasion of Haj, the Holy Prophet(pbuh) despatched Hadrat Ali to follow Hadrat Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with them), who had already left for Makkah as leader of the Pilgrims to the Ka'abah. He instructed Hadrat Ali to deliver the discourse before the representatives of the different clans of Arabia so as to inform them of the new policy towards the mushriks[polytheists].
The second discourse (vv. 38-72) was sent down in Rajab A. H. 9 or a little before this, when the Holy Prophet was engaged in making preparations for the Campaign of Tabuk.
The third discourse (vv. 73-I 29) was revealed on his return from the Campaign of Tabuk.
Historical Background
The series of events that have been discussed in this Surah took place after the Peace Treaty of Hudaibiyah. By that time, one-third of Arabia had come under the sway of Islam which had established itself as a powerful, well organized and civilized Islamic State. This Treaty afforded further opportunities to Islam to spread its influence in the comparatively peaceful atmosphere created by it. After this Treaty, two events took place, which led to very important results:
Conquest of Aarabia
The first was the Conquest of Arabia. The Holy Prophet was able to send missions among different clans for the propagation of Islam. The result was that during the short period of two years, it became such a great power that it made the old order of ignorance' feel helpless before it. So much so that the zealous elements from among the Quraish were so exasperated that they broke the Treaty in order to encounter Islam in a decisive combat. But the Holy Prophet took prompt action after the breach so as not to allow them any opportunity to gather enough force for this. He made a sudden invasion on Makkah in the month of Ramadan in A. H. 8 and conquered it. Though this conquest broke the backbone of the order of ignorance, it made still another attack on Islam in the battle-field of Hunain, which proved to be its death-knell. The clans of Hawazin Thaqif, Naur, Jushm and others gathered their entire forces in the battle field in order to crush the reformative Revolution, but they utterly failed in their evil designs. The defeat of 'ignorance' at Hunain paved the way for making the whole of Arabia the 'Abode of Islam' (Dar-ul-Islam). The result was that hardly a year had Passed after the Battle of Hunain, when the major portion of Arabia came within the fold of Islam and only a few upholders of the old order remained scattered over some corners of the country.

The second event will be discussed in the next post.
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Old 02-13-2005, 02:19 PM   #13 (permalink)
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Re: Mohammad from Mecca to Medina

Campaign to Tabuk
The second event that contributed towards making Islam a formidable power was the Campaign of Tabuk, which was necessitated by the provocative activities of the Christians living within or near the boundaries of the Roman Empire to the north of Arabia. Accordingly, the Holy Prophet, with an army of thirty thousand marched boldly towards the Roman Empire but the Romans evaded the encounter. The result was that the power of the Holy Prophet and Islam increased manifold and deputations from all corners of Arabia began to wait upon him on his return from Tabuk in order to offer their allegiance to Islam and obedience to him. The Holy Quran has described this triumph in Surah AN-NASR: "When the succour of Allah came and victory was attained and you saw people entering the fold of Islam in large numbers...
The Campaign to Tabuk was the result of conflict with the Roman Empire, that had started even before the conquest of Makkah. One of the missions sent after the Treaty of Hudaibiyah to different parts of Arabia visited the clans which lived in the northern areas adjacent to Syria. The majority of these people were Christians, who were under the influence of the Roman Empire. Contrary to all the principles of the commonly accepted international law, they killed fifteen members of the delegation near a place known as Zat-u-Talah (or Zat-i-Itlah). Only Ka'ab bin Umair Ghifari, the head of the delegation, succeeded in escaping and reporting the sad incident. Besides this, Shurahbil bin Amr, the Christian governor of Busra, who was directly under the Roman Caesar, had also put to death Haritli bin Umair, the ambassador of the Holy Prophet, who had been sent to him on a similar mission.
These events convinced the Holy Prophet(pbuh) that a strong action should be taken in order to make the territory adjacent to the Roman Empire safe and secure for the Muslims. Accordingly, in the month of Jamadi-ul-Ula A. H. 8, he sent an army of three thousand towards the Syrian border. When this army reached near Ma'an, the Muslims learnt that Shurahbil was marching with an army of one hundred thousand to fight-with them and that the Caesar, who himself was at Hims, had sent another army consisting of one hundred thousand soldiers under his brother Theodore. But in spite of such fearful news, the brave small band of the Muslims marched on fearlessly and encountered the big army of Shurahbil at M'utah. And the result of the encounter in which the Muslims were fighting against fearful odds (the ratio of the two armies was 1:33), as very favorable, for the enemy utterly failed to defeat them. This proved very helpful for the propagation of Islam. As a result, those Arabs who were living in a state of semi. independence in Syria and near Syria and the clans of Najd near Iraq, who were under the influence of the Iranian Empire, turned towards Islam and embraced it in thousands. For example, the people of Bani Sulaim (whose chief was Abbas bin Mirdas Sulaimi), Ashja'a, Ghatafan, Zubyan, Fazarah, etc., came into the fold of Islam at the same time. Above all, Farvah bin 'Amral Juzami, who was the commander of the Arab armies of the Roman Empire, embraced Islam during that time, and underwent the trial of his Faith in a way that filled the whole territory with wonder. When the Caesar came to know that Farvah had embraced Islam, he ordered that he should be arrested and brought to his court. Then the Caesar said to him, "You will have to choose one of the two things. Either give up your Islam and win your liberty and your former rank, or remain a Muslim and face death." He calmly chose Islam and sacrificed his life in the way of the Truth.
No wonder that such events as these made the Caesar realize the nature of the danger that was threatening his Empire from Arabia. Accordingly, in 9 A. H. he began to make military preparations to avenge the insult he had suffered at M'utah. The Ghassanid and other Arab chiefs also began to muster armies under him. When the Holy Prophet, who always kept himself well-informed even of the minutest things that could affect the Islamic Movement favorably or adversely, came to know of these preparations, he at once under- stood their meaning. Therefore, without the least hesitation he decided to fight against the great power of the Caesar. He knew that the show of the slightest weakness would result in the utter failure of the Movement which was facing three great dangers at that time. First the dying power of 'ignorance' that had almost been crushed in the battle-field of Hunain might revive again. Secondly, the Hypocrites of Al: Madinah, who were always on the look-out for such an opportunity, might make full use of this to do the greatest possible harm to it. For they had already made preparations for this and had, through a monk called Abu Amir, sent secret messages of their evil designs to the Christian king of Ghassan and the Caesar himself. Besides this, they had also built a mosque near Al-Madinah for holding secret meetings for this purpose. The third danger was of an attack by the Caesar himself, who had already defeated Iran, the other great power of that period, and filled with awe the adjacent territories.
It is obvious that if all these three elements had been given an opportunity of taking a concerted action against the Muslims, Islam would have lost the fight it had almost won. That is why in this case the Holy Prophet made an open declaration for making preparations for the Campaign against the Roman Empire, which was one of the two greatest empires of the world of that period. The declaration was made though all the apparent circumstances were against such a decision: for there was famine in the country and the long awaited crops were about to ripen: the burning heat of the scorching summer season of Arabia was at, its height and there was not enough money for preparations in general, and for equipment and conveyance in particular. But in spite of these handicaps, when the Messenger of Allah realized the urgency of the occasion, he took this step which was to decide whether the Mission of the Truth was - - going to survive or perish. The very fact that he made an open declaration for making preparations for such a campaign to Syria against the Roman Empire showed how important it was, for this was contrary to his previous practice. Usually he took every precaution not to reveal beforehand the direction to which he was going nor the name of the enemy whom he was going to attack; nay, he did not move out of Al- Madinah even in the direction of the campaign.
All the parties in Arabia fully realized the grave consequences of this critical decision. The remnants of the lovers of the old order of 'ignorance' were anxiously waiting for the result of the Campaign, for they had pinned all their hopes on the defeat of Islam by the Romans. The 'hypocrites' also considered it to be their last chance of crushing the power of Islam by internal rebellion, if the Muslims suffered a defeat in Syria. They had, therefore, made full use of the Mosque built by them for hatching plots and had employed all their devices to render the Campaign a failure. On the other side, the true Believers also realized fully that the fate of the Movement for which they had been exerting their utmost for the last 22 years was now hanging in the balance. If they showed courage on that critical occasion, the doors of the whole outer world would be thrown open for the Movement to spread. But if they showed weakness or cowardice, then all the work they had done in Arabia would -end in smoke.
That is why these lovers of Islam began to make enthusiastic preparations for the Campaign. Everyone of them tried to surpass the other in making contributions for the provision of equipment for it. Hadrat Uthman and Hadrat Abdur Rehman bin Auf presented large sums of money for this purpose. Hadrat Umar contributed half of the earnings of his life and Hadrat Abu Bakr the entire earnings of his life. The indigent Companions did not lag behind and presented whatever they could earn by the sweat of their labor and the women parted with their ornaments. Thousands of volunteers, who were filled with the desire of sacrificing their lives for Islam, came to the Holy Prophet and requested that arrangements for weapons and conveyance be made for them so that they should join the expedition. Those who could not be provided with these shed tears of sorrow; the scene was so pathetic that it made the Holy Prophet sad because of his inability to arm them. In short, the occasion became the touchstone for discriminating a true believer from a hypocrite. For, to lag behind in the Campaign meant that the very relationship of a person to Islam was doubtful. Accordingly, whenever a person lagged behind during the journey to Tabuk, the Holy Prophet, on being informed, would spontaneously say, "Leave him alone. If there be any good in him, Allah will again join him with you, and if there be no good in him, then thank Allah that He relieved you of his evil company".
In short, the Holy Prophet marched out towards Syria in Rajab A. H. 9, with thirty thousand fighters for the cause of Islam. The conditions in which the expedition was undertaken may be judged from the fact that the number of camels with them was so small that many of them were obliged to walk on foot and to wait for their turns for several had to ride at a time on each camel. To add to this, there was the burning heat of the desert and the acute shortage of water. But they were richly rewarded for their firm resolve and sincere adherence to the cause and for their perseverance in the face of those great difficulties and obstacles.
When they arrived at Tabuk, they learnt that the Caesar and his allies had withdrawn their troops from the frontier and there was no enemy to fight with. Thus they won a moral victory that increased their prestige manifold and, that too, without shedding a drop of blood.
In this connection, it is pertinent to point out that the general impression given by the historians of the campaigns of the Holy Prophet about the Campaign of Tabuk is not correct. They relate the event in a way as if the news of the mustering of the Roman armies near the Arabian frontier was itself false. The fact is that the Caesar had begun to muster his armies, but the Holy Prophet forestalled him and arrived on the scene before he could make full preparations for the invasion. Therefore, believing that "discretion is the better part of valor," he withdrew his armies from the frontier. For he had not forgotten that the three thousand fighters for the cause of Islam had rendered helpless his army one hundred thousand strong at M'utah. He could not, therefore, even with an army of two hundred thousand, dare to fight against an army of thirty thousand, and that, too, under the leadership of the Holy Prophet himself.
When the Holy Prophet found that the Caesar had withdrawn his forces from the frontier, he considered the question whether it would be worthwhile to march into the Syrian territory or to halt at Tabuk and turn his moral victory to political and strategical advantage. He decided on the latter course and made a halt for twenty days at Tabuk. During this time, he brought pressure on the small states that lay between the Roman Empire and the Islamic State and were at that time under the influence of the Romans, and subdued and made them the tributaries of the Islamic State. For instance, some Christian chiefs Ukaidir bin Abdul Malik Kindi of Dumatul Jaiidal, Yuhanna bin D'obah of Allah, and the chiefs of Maqna, Jarba' and Azruh also submitted and agreed to pay Jizyah to the Islamic State of Al- Madinah. As a result of this, the boundaries of the Islamic State were extended right up to the Roman Empire, and the majority of the Arab clans, who were being used by the Caesar against Arabia, became the allies of the Muslims against the Romans.
Above all, this moral victory of Tabuk afforded a golden opportunity to the Muslims to strengthen their hold on Arabia before entering into a long conflict with the Romans. For it broke the back of those who had still been expecting that the old order of 'ignorance' might revive in the near future, whether they were the open upholders of shirk or the hypocrites who were hiding their shirk under the garb of Islam. The majority of such people were compelled by the force of circumstances to enter into the fold of Islam and, at least, make it possible for their descendants to become true Muslims. After this a mere impotent minority of the upholders of the old order was left in the field, but it could not stand in the way of the Islamic Revolution for the perfection of which Allah had sent His Messenger.
Hope this helps and yes, Inshallah the other verses of 2:191-193 will be discussed next time.
And Allah knows best.
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Old 02-14-2005, 03:18 PM   #14 (permalink)
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Re: Mohammad from Mecca to Medina

Quote:
Originally Posted by Faithfulservant
What about these? Could you please explain these to me?
In surah 73:10 God tells Mohammed to be patient with his opponents "Be patient with what they say, and part from them courteously." While in surah 2:191 God orders him to kill his opponents "Kill them wherever you find them, and drive them out from wherever they drove you out..."
In surah 2:256 God tells Mohammed not to impose Islam by force "There is no compulsion in religion." While in verse 193 God tells him to kill whoever rejects Islam "Fight (kill) them until there is no persecution and the religion is God's."
h| everyone,
Note: The last two posts are translations of what Maulana Mawdudi wrote as part of an introduction to Ch. 9 (surah Taubah) of the Quran.

Now, please see the following article that discusses the issue quoted above from the texts of the Qur’an and Sunnah.
Let There Be No Compulsion in Religion by Sheikh Sâmî al-Mâjid (Part 1)

One of the fundamental truths established by the sacred texts is that no one can be compelled to accept Islam. It is the duty of Muslims to establish the proof of Islam to the people so that truth can be made clear from falsehood. After that, whoever wishes to accept Islam may do so and whoever wishes to continue upon unbelief may do so. No one should be threatened or harmed in any way if he does not wish to accept Islam.

Among the many decisive pieces of evidence in this regard are the following:

Allah says: “Let there be no compulsion in religion. Truth has been made clear from error. Whoever rejects false worship and believes in Allah has grasped the most trustworthy handhold that never breaks. And Allah hears and knows all things.” [Quran, 2:256]
Allah says: “If it had been your Lord’s will, all of the people on Earth would have believed. Would you then compel the people so to have them believe?”[Quran, 10:99]
Allah says: “So if they dispute with you, say ‘I have submitted my whole self to Allah, and so have those who follow me.’ And say to the People of the Scripture and to the unlearned: ‘Do you also submit yourselves?’ If they do, then they are on right guidance. But if they turn away, your duty is only to convey the Message. And in Allah’s sight are all of His servants.”[Quran, 3:20]
Allah says: “The Messenger’s duty is but to proclaim the Message.”[Quran, 5:99]
It is important to note that these last two verses were revealed in Madinah. This is significant, since it shows that the ruling they gave was not just contingent on the Muslims being in Mecca in a state of weakness.

Some people might be wondering that if Islam indeed advocates such an approach, then what is all this we hear about jihad? How can we explain the warfare that the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his Companions waged against the pagans?

The answer to this is that jihad in Islamic Law can be waged for a number of reasons, but compelling people to accept Islam is simply not one of them.

The reason why jihad was first permitted in Islam was so the Muslims could defend themselves against persecution and expulsion from their homes.

Allah says: “To those against whom war is made, permission is given (to fight), because they are wronged – and verily Allah is Most Powerful for their aid – (They are) those who have been expelled from their homes in defiance of right – (for no cause) except that they say, ‘Our Lord is Allah’. Did Allah not check one set of people by means of another, there would surely have been pulled down monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques, in which the name of Allah is commemorated in abundant measure. Allah will certainly aid those who aid his cause, for truly Allah is full of strength and might.” [Quran, 22: 39-40]
Many of the earliest scholars mention that these were the first verses of the Qur’ân that was revealed regarding jihad. Thereafter the following verses were revealed:

“Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for Allah loves not transgressors. And slay them wherever you catch them and drive them out from whence they drove you out, for oppression is worse than killing. But fight them not at the sacred mosque unless they fight you there. But if they fight you, slay them. Such is the reward of those who suppress faith. But if they cease, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. And fight them on until there is no more tumult or oppression and there prevail justice and faith in Allah. But if they cease, let there be no hostility except to those who practice oppression.” [Quran, 2:190-193]
From this point on, the scope of jihad was broadened from being purely for defense against direct attack to being inclusive of resistance against those who suppress the faith and deny people the freedom to choose their religion for themselves. This came later, because it is legislated for the Muslims only when they are capable of doing so. In times of weakness, Muslims may only fight against direct attack.

As for the spread of Islam, this is supposed to take place peacefully by disseminating the Message with the written and spoken word. There is no place for the use of weapons to compel people to accept Islam. Weapons can only be drawn against those who persecute and oppress others and prevent them from following their own consciences in matters of belief. The Muslims cannot just stand by while people are being denied the right to believe in Islam and their voices are being crushed. This is the meaning of Allah’s words: “And fight them on until there is no more tumult or oppression and there prevail justice and faith in Allah.” [Quran, 2:193]
The Prophet (peace be upon him) said in his letter to the Roman governor Heracles: “I invite you to accept Islam. If you accept Islam, you will find safety. If you accept Islam, Allah will give you a double reward. However, if you turn away, upon you will be the sin of your subjects.” [Sahîh Bukhârî & Sahîh Muslim]

Once people have heard the Message without obstruction or hindrance and the proof has been established upon them, then the duty of the Muslims is done. Those who wish to believe are free to do so and those who prefer to disbelieve are likewise free to do so.

Even when the Muslims are compelled to fight and then subdue the land, their duty thereafter is to establish Allah’s law in the land and uphold justice for all people, Muslim and non-Muslim. It is not their right to coerce their subjects to accept Islam against their will. Non-Muslims under Muslim rule must be allowed to remain on their own faith and must be allowed to practice the rights of their faith, though they will be expected to respect the laws of the land.

Had the purpose of jihad been to force the unbelievers to accept Islam, the Prophet (peace be upon him) would never have commanded the Muslims to refrain from hostilities if the enemy relented. He would not have prohibited the killing of women and children. However, this is exactly what he did.

During a battle, the Prophet (peace be upon him) saw people gathered together. He dispatched a man to find out why they were gathered. The man returned and said: “They are gathered around a slain woman.” So Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) said: “She should not have been attacked!” Khâlid b. al-Walîd was leading the forces, so he dispatched a man to him saying: “‘Tell Khâlid not to kill women or laborers”. [Sunan Abî Dâwűd]

Therefore, even in the heat of battle against a hostile enemy, the only people who may be attacked are those who are actually participating in the fighting.

Had the purpose of jihad been to force the unbelievers to accept Islam, the rightly guided Caliphs would not have prohibited the killing of priests and monks who refrained from fighting. However, this is exactly what they did. When the first Caliph, Abű Bakr, sent an army to Syria to fight the aggressive Roman legions, he went out to give them words of encouragement. He said: “You are going to find a group of people who have devoted themselves to the worship of Allah (i.e. monks), so leave them to what they are doing.”

We have demonstrated that it is a principle in Islam that there is no compulsion in religion and we have discussed the objectives of jihad. Now, we shall turn our attentions to some texts that are often misunderstood.

One of these is the verse: “But when the forbidden months are past, then fight the pagans wherever you find them, and seize them and beleaguer them and lie in wait for them in every stratagem (of war). But if they repent and establish regular prayers and practice regular charity, then open the way for them, for Allah is oft-forgiving, most merciful.” [Quran, 9:5]
Some people – especially some contemporary non-Muslim critics of Islam – have tried to claim that this verse abrogates the verse “Let there be no compulsion in religion.” They argue that the generality of this statement implies that every unbeliever who refuses to accept Islam must be fought. They support their allegation by pointing out that this verse is one of the last verses to be revealed about fighting.

However, this verse in no way abrogates the principle in Islamic Law that there is no compulsion in religion. It may be general in wording, but its meaning is quite specific on account of other verses of the Qur’an that are connected with it as well as on account of a number of pertinent hadîth. We will be discussing these texts shortly.

The people being referred to by this verse are the pagan Arabs who had been waging war against the Prophet (peace be upon him) and who had broken their covenant and treaties with him. This verse is not speaking about the other pagan Arabs who did not break their treaties and take up arms against the Muslims. It is also most definitely not speaking about the Jews or Christians, or, for that matter, the pagans who were living outside of Arabia.

If we look at the verses in Sűrah al-Tawbah immediately before and after the one under discussion, the context of the verse becomes clear.

A few verses before the one we are discussing, Allah says: “There is a declaration of immunity from Allah and His Messenger to those of the pagans with whom you have contracted mutual alliances. Go then, for four months, to and fro throughout the land. But know that you cannot frustrate Allah that Allah will cover with shame those who reject Him.” [Quran, 9:1-2]
In these verses we see that the pagans were granted a four month amnesty with an indication that when the four months were over, fighting would resume. However, a following verse exempts some of them from the resumption of hostilities. It reads: “Except for those pagans with whom you have entered into a covenant and who then do not break their covenant at all nor aided anyone against you. So fulfill your engagements with them until the end of their term, for Allah loves the righteous.” [Quran, 9:4]
So when Allah says: “But when the forbidden months are past, then fight the pagans wherever you find them, and seize them and beleaguer them and lie in wait for them in every stratagem (of war)” we must know that it is not general, since the verse above has qualified it to refer to the pagan Arabs who were actually at war with the Prophet (peace be upon him) and those who broke their covenants of peace.

This is further emphasized by a few verses later where Allah says: “Will you not fight people who broke their covenants and plotted to expel the Messenger and attacked you first?” [Quran, 9:13]
Ibn al-`Arabî, in his commentary on the Qur’ân, writes: “It is clear from this that the meaning of this verse is to kill the pagans who are waging war against you.” [Ahkâm al-Qur’ân:2/456)]

Allah also says right after the verse under discussion:“How can there be a covenant before Allah and His Messenger with the pagans except those with whom you have made a treaty near the Sacred Mosque? As long as they stand true to you, stand true to them, for Allah does love the righteous.” [Quran, 9: 7]

TO BE CONTINUED...
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Old 02-14-2005, 03:29 PM   #15 (permalink)
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Re: Mohammad from Mecca to Medina

Let There Be No Compulsion in Religion by Sheikh Sâmî al-Mâjid (Part 2)
Another misunderstood text is the hadîth where the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “I have been commanded to fight the people until they bear witness that there is no God but Allah and that I am Allah’s Messenger. If they do so, then there blood and their wealth are inviolable except in the dispensation of justice, and their affair is with Allah.” [Sahîh Bukhârî & Sahîh Muslim]

There can be no qualms about this hadîth’s authenticity, since it is recorded in both Sahîh al-Bukhârî and Sahîh Muslim. However, this hadîth is also not to be taken generally, out of context, and in complete disregard to all the other textual evidence.

The term “people” here is not referring to all humanity. Ibn Taymiyah says: “It refers to fighting those who are waging war, whom Allah has permitted us to fight. It does not refer to those who have a covenant with us with whom Allah commands us to fulfill our covenant.” [Majmű` al-Fatâwâ (19/20)]

Islam commands the Muslims to be just with people of other faiths, whether they be Jews, Christians, or pagans. Islam calls us to treat them kindly and try to win their hearts as long as they do not take up arms against us. Allah says: “Allah forbids you not with regard to those who neither fight against you for your faith nor drive you out of your homes from dealing kindly and justly with them, for Allah loves those who are just.” [Quran, 60:8]
Allah commands Muslims to respect their non-Muslim parents and to accompany them in this world in a good manner.

The Qur’ân commands us to argue with them in the best manner. Allah says: “Argue with the People of the Scripture in the best manner except those among them who act oppressively. Say: We believe in the revelation that has come down to us and in that which came down to you. Our God and your God is one, and it is to Him we submit ourselves as Muslims.” [Quran, 29:46]
We are ordered to uphold our covenants with the non-Muslims and not betray them or transgress against them. The Prophet (peace be upon him) gave a stern warning to us against killing a non-Muslim with whom we are at peace. He said: “Whoever kills one with whom we have a covenant will not smell the scent of Paradise.” [Sahîh Muslim]

The faith of a Muslim is not acceptable unless he believes in all of the Prophets who were sent before (peace be upon them all). Allah says: “O you who believe! Believe in Allah, His Messenger, the scripture that He revealed to His messenger and the scripture that he revealed before. Whoever disbelieves in Allah, His angels, His books, His Messengers, and the Last Day has gone far astray.” [Quran, 4:136]
-----------------------------
Hope this answers your questions.
And Allah knows best.
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