Kindest Regards, all! Just thought I'd chime in for a moment. I have posted info elsewhere concerning the "child of Lapedo, Portugal." It has been a while and the details are a bit fuzzy in my recollection, but the end analysis by several groups that looked into the matter concluded that the child of Lapedo was a Neandertal / Cro Magnon hybrid. Since this is an isolated find, the implications are a little fuzzy, in that while "we" know Neandertal disappeared, we don't really know why or how. I also find it interesting that Lapedo dates to about 5 thousand years after Neandertal is thought to have disappeared. Pretty long time in my book to suddenly appear out of nowhere. So, while Neandertal and modern humans may have some distinct genetic differences, Lapedo makes it pretty apparent that the two were sufficiently similar to enable interbreeding. Culturally there must have been some cooperative interaction as well to bring this about. My two cents. Addendum: "Erik Trinkaus, an anthropologist at Washington University in St. Louis, says the DNA evidence does not disprove his assertion that the 25,000-year-old skeleton of child unearthed in Portugal is the descendent of a human-Neanderthal hybrid. The new research, he says, just shows interbreeding was not common." -from the website referenced by Tao.