Hi. I am going to tread lightly on this subject in order to NOT upset anyone or instigate an argument . Just rational dialogue if you will . Today I was drawing a picture of a sort of devilish figure on the water and then a thought occured: Devils (I've seen in religious art since I was a little boy) have horns. And often Vikings in movies, cartoons etc. have horned helmets. I thought about this a little more and then wikipedia-ed viking decline. Viking decline began around the 11th century , due in part to a steady Christian influence in Europe. Then I read a few things about the Northern Crusades : "The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were crusades undertaken by the Catholic kings of Denmark and Sweden, the German Livonian and Teutonic military orders, and their allies against the pagan peoples of Northern Europe around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea." The vikings. I picture a people and a governing king(s) so freaked out by these norsemen that popular tales would circulate and form a sort of "fables". Perhaps this was an influence of later christian artists? I searched the web for 11th century art and came across a whole section on Gothic era art and artists. I guess I was searching for when devils started to appear in religious art. I did'nt find anything before the 1600s . This would be around the time the King James Bible circulated? I looked further into that and found that the KJB new testament was translated from a greek text and the old testament from the Masoretic Hebrew text. I don't have time right now to continue researching where this famous icon came from (devil with horns) but I wanted to just put it out there. I don't mean to offend anyone , I tend to look at things with a historical sense , my apologies if I have. Anyone have any more information on this ? Thank you , R.m.