WOMAN - THE SIKH PERSPECTIVE From woman, (man) is born; within woman, (man) is conceived; to woman he is engaged and married. With woman (man) establishes friendship; through woman, the future generations come. When woman dies, (man) seeks another woman; because of woman, (man) becomes related (to other people - ਲੈਣ-ਦੇਣ ਦੇ ਸਾਰੇ ਸੰਸਾਰਕ ਬੰਧਾਨੁ, etc.). From her, (even) kings are born; so why call her bad? From woman, woman is born; without woman, there would be no one at all. O Nanak, only the True Lord is without woman (i.e., He is Unborn, etc.). That mouth which praises the Lord continually is blessed and fortunate. O Nanak, those faces are radiant in the Court of God. ||2|| (sggs 473). <><><><> The Sanskrit word for woman is "Stree". Its modified form in Punjabi is "Istree". To understand the significance and the importance of the role woman plays in the human society, it is essential to understand the underlying meaning of this Sanskrit word. In nutshell, "Stree" simply means "expansion". In truth, woman never stops from expanding throughout her entire life! First, when a woman is born, she expands her parents' family. Upon becoming an adult, she gets married into another family; thus expanding her husband's family. Further, by bearing children, she expands her own family. In turn, her children repeat the same process. She, thus, keeps the family or human flame going. In her humility, she establishes the honor and dignity of the house and the society. Looking at it from a different angle, by bodily union of the man and woman their qualities are expanded. For example, children born of parents are expansions of the parents' personal qualities and qualifications, good or otherwise (genes, DNA, habit patterns, etc.). As alluded to in the Gurbani, without woman both the husband's family and the parents' family are zero. The practical implication is that without woman, there would be no one at all. Because she is the source of man's physical existence. Hence, she is sometimes called the mother of the universe. The name "Stree" thus signifies her empowerment, courage, patience, devotion, dignity, and strength. The following Shabad of Baabaa Nanak in the Gurbani (Sri Guru Granth Sahib, SGGS) shows the honorable status held by woman in Sikhism. In the Slok of the Bani popularly know as Asa Di Var - pronounced Aasaa Dee Vaar - Baabaa Nanak says: ਮਃ ੧ ॥ ਭੰਡਿ ਜੰਮੀਐ ਭੰਡਿ ਨਿੰਮੀਐ ਭੰਡਿ ਮੰਗਣੁ ਵੀਆਹੁ ॥ ਭੰਡਹੁ ਹੋਵੈ ਦੋਸਤੀ ਭੰਡਹੁ ਚਲੈ ਰਾਹੁ ॥ ਭੰਡੁ ਮੁਆ ਭੰਡੁ ਭਾਲੀਐ ਭੰਡਿ ਹੋਵੈ ਬੰਧਾਨੁ ॥ ਸੋ ਕਿਉ ਮੰਦਾ ਆਖੀਐ ਜਿਤੁ ਜੰਮਹਿ ਰਾਜਾਨ ॥ ਭੰਡਹੁ ਹੀ ਭੰਡੁ ਊਪਜੈ ਭੰਡੈ ਬਾਝੁ ਨ ਕੋਇ ॥ ਨਾਨਕ ਭੰਡੈ ਬਾਹਰਾ ਏਕੋ ਸਚਾ ਸੋਇ ॥ ਜਿਤੁ ਮੁਖਿ ਸਦਾ ਸਾਲਾਹੀਐ ਭਾਗਾ ਰਤੀ ਚਾਰਿ ॥ ਨਾਨਕ ਤੇ ਮੁਖ ਊਜਲੇ ਤਿਤੁ ਸਚੈ ਦਰਬਾਰਿ ॥੨॥: Ma: 1 || Bhand janmeeai bhand ninmeeai bhand mangan veeaahu || Bhandahu hovai dosatee bhandahu chalai raahu. Bhand muaa bhand bhaaleeai bhand hovai bandhaan || So kio mandaa aakheeai jit jammahi raajaan || Bhandahu hee bhand oopajai bhndai baajh na koi || Nanak bhandai baaharaa eko sachaa soi ||Jit mukh sadaa saalaaheeai bhaagaa ratee chaar || Nanak te mukh oojale tih sachai darabaar ||2||: Ma: 1. From woman, (man) is born; within woman, (man) is conceived; to woman he is engaged and married. With woman (man) establishes friendship; through woman, the future generations come. When woman dies, (man) seeks another woman; because of woman, (man) becomes related (to other people - ਲੈਣ-ਦੇਣ ਦੇ ਸਾਰੇ ਸੰਸਾਰਕ ਬੰਧਾਨੁ, etc.). From her, (even) kings are born; so why call her bad? From woman, woman is born; without woman, there would be no one at all. O Nanak, only the True Lord is without woman (i.e., He is Unborn, etc.). That mouth which praises the Lord continually is blessed and fortunate. O Nanak, those faces are radiant in the Court of God. ||2|| (sggs 473). In addition to many noble qualities such as selfless love, humility, gentleness, kindness, shyness, simplicity, calmness, compassion, generosity and coyness, name "Stree" denotes the sacrifices she makes throughout her life. There can be no parallel to woman's sacrifice and patience. For example, during pregnancy she has to suffer for several months. As she bears the child, it gives her pain and discomfort while growing in her womb. She not only undergoes pain and trouble, but she also sacrifices everything including her blood for the child. At the time of delivery there is also sometimes severe danger and complications. After birth, she pays her entire attention to see the child's comfort and progress. Therefore, a woman as a mother indeed is more precious than the universe. This noble quality of sacrifice in her makes her sweet-natured. No wonder in the Gurbani even God is depicted as the embodiment of woman — "Sweet". Not only that, time and again, each soul is limned as woman (i.e., Stree-Ling) in the Gurbani. ਠਾਕੁਰੁ ਏਕੁ ਸਬਾਈ ਨਾਰਿ ॥: Thakur ek sabaaee Naar: There is one Lord ("Akaal Purakh"), and all are His brides (sggs 933). ਤੂੰ ਮੇਰਾ ਪਿਤਾ ਤੂੰਹੈ ਮੇਰਾ ਮਾਤਾ ॥: Toon meraa pitaa toon hai meraa maataa: (O Lord) You are my Father, and You are my Mother (sggs 103). ਆਪੇ ਪੁਰਖੁ ਆਪੇ ਹੀ ਨਾਰੀ ॥:: Aapay purakh aapay hee naaree: (Since God) is neither male nor female; how can anyone describe Him? (sggs 1020). Many might be unaware of the fact that woman also has been praised throughout the ancient Vedic scriptures as Satyavati, Angavati, Anyavati and Nidanavati. In fact the well known Gayatri Mantra of Vedas — which is considered the very source of Vedas — is said to be the embodiment of woman. Satyavati means the same One God is present in every particle of the universe as the unseen butter in milk. Angavati represents the five elements (earth, water, fire, air and sky) as an aspect of God. Anyavati symbolizes different types of service and worship (Araadhanaa). Nidanavati represents the nine different forms of devotion. Woman is exalted as Aadi Shakti in the Vedic texts — different names given to her in this context include Sabada Brahmamayi, Charaacharamayi, Jyotirmayi, Vaangmayi, Nithyanandamayi, Paraatparamayi, Maayaamayi, Sreemayi, and so on. Mentioned in the Vedic texts are several godly qualities having feminine attributes — fame or glory (Keertee), prosperity (Sree), illuminating fine speech (Vach), remembrance or memory (Smriti), discriminating intelligence (Medhaa), intuition or fixity of the mind (Dhriti), steadfastness of patience or forbearance (Kshamaa), and so on. Some of the other godly qualities having feminine attributes are Sathya (truth), Dharma (truthfulness-righteousness), Shaanti (peace), Prema (love), Ahimsa (nonviolence), Dayiaa (mercy or compassion), etc. Thus, woman is a fountain of human values and good qualities. In fact, all souls (man and woman alike) are bestowed with these spiritual qualities. Therefore, all of us have the ability to negate or enhance their positive effects in our lives. For example, if someone is famous as a righteous man, that makes him glorious. Sweet speech is derived from the vibratory sound of the Shabad. Memory is the power of continuity of awareness. Through the power of discriminating intelligence (Viveka-Budhi), the ignorant man gains intuitive wisdom. Intuition is the fixity of the mind in Truth or its "Joti-Svaroopa". The ability to overcome unsteadiness is steadfastness, and the ability to remain intuitively balanced amidst the feelings of "likes" and "dislikes" is patience. Whatever we do from a heart filled with selfless love is Truth, Dharma, peace, wisdom and compassions. ਧੀਰਜੁ ਜਸੁ ਸੋਭਾ ਤਿਹ ਬਨਿਆ॥ ਹਰਿ ਹਰਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਸ੍ਰਵਨ ਜਿਹ ਸੁਨਿਆ ॥: Dheeraj jas sobhaa tih baniaa. Har har naam sravan jih suniaa: Patience, glory and honor come to those who listen to the Divine Name (sggs 257). ਜੋ ਹਰਿ ਸੇਵਹਿ ਸੇ ਸਦਾ ਸੋਹਹਿ ਸੋਭਾ ਸੁਰਤਿ ਸੁਹਾਵਣਿਆ ॥: Jo har sevahi say sadaa sohahi sobhaa surat suhaavaniaa: Those who serve God are always beautiful. The glory of their intuitive awareness is beautiful (sggs 122). ਕਵਣੁ ਸੁ ਅਖਰੁ ਕਵਣੁ ਗੁਣੁ ਕਵਣੁ ਸੁ ਮਣੀਆ ਮੰਤੁ ॥ ਕਵਣੁ ਸੁ ਵੇਸੋ ਹਉ ਕਰੀ ਜਿਤੁ ਵਸਿ ਆਵੈ ਕੰਤੁ ॥੧੨੬॥ ਨਿਵਣੁ ਸੁ ਅਖਰੁ ਖਵਣੁ ਗੁਣੁ ਜਿਹਬਾ ਮਣੀਆ ਮੰਤੁ ॥ ਏ ਤ੍ਰੈ ਭੈਣੇ ਵੇਸ ਕਰਿ ਤਾਂ ਵਸਿ ਆਵੀ ਕੰਤੁ ॥੧੨੭॥: Kavan su akhar kavan gun kavan su maneeaa mant. Kavan su veso haou karee jit vas aavai kant. Niwan su akhar khavan gun jihba maneeaa mant. Ye trai bhaine ves kar taa vas aavee kant ||127||: What is that word, what is that virtue, and what is that magic Mantra? What are those clothes, which I can wear to captivate my Husband Lord? ||126|| Humility is the word, forgiveness is the virtue, and sweet speech is the magic mantra. Wear these three robes, O sister, and you will captivate your Husband God ||127|| (sggs 1384). These glorious feminine attributes can be tapped in meditation (Jap or Naam-Simran). Once they are awakened in the bosom from their dormant condition, the life has to become glorious. When their mystery is so unlocked within, the light of these attributes must illumine the entire body-mind-intellect apparatus. Ironically, in one hand the man wants to awaken these spiritual ideals and virtues in his bosom so that he can link with God, his Pure Self. But the same time he wants to denigrate the woman by calling her "the doorway leading to the most rigorous hell" ("Narak ghor kaa dwaaraa or Duaaraa "), "Pair kee jootee" (equal to footwear), "slave", and so on! The Gurbani condemns such hypocrisy. ਹਾਥ ਕਮੰਡਲੁ ਕਾਪੜੀਆ ਮਨਿ ਤ੍ਰਿਸਨਾ ਉਪਜੀ ਭਾਰੀ ॥ ਇਸਤ੍ਰੀ ਤਜਿ ਕਰਿ ਕਾਮਿ ਵਿਆਪਿਆ ਚਿਤੁ ਲਾਇਆ ਪਰ ਨਾਰੀ ॥: In his (Sannyaasi) hands is the begging bowl and he wears a patched coat like a mendicant's but with him is immense craving. And though he abandons his own wife, he's attached to another's, lured by sex-desire (sggs 1013). In India, in addition to dowry system, woman for centuries have been systematically downgraded by many ways by the religion and priest class (Pujaaree Group). For example, they were falsely labeled by the priest class as spiritually "impure" due to menstruation; they were forced to burn in the pyre of their husbands (Satee); they were deprived of education (material and spiritual) and equal rights for property and inheritance; they were considered unfit for spiritual advancement or salvation; they were subjected to economic, social, and cultural oppression; they were regarded as a source of sin, vice or dishonor to man and thus labeled as bad influence on him; they were considered hurdle to man's spiritual journey; they were declared as not very intelligent and trustworthy; some went to the extent to suggest women being alike animals in meaning or significance; and so on. This sort of attitude towards woman has promoted social degradation of the status of women as well as social inequality between man and woman. As a result, the attitude towards women as subordinate remains not only in India but throughout the world. In some cultures and religions it's worse than others. In the western cultures, the woman is generally looked at as a sex symbol — she is praised only if she has good looks. In the middle eastern cultures, the woman is virtually treated as a slave, accentuating social, economic and cultural inequalities. Thus, the woman who is full of so many wonderful spiritual qualities is today considered something very small, insignificant, unintelligent, weak, lowly and is relegated a backward place and neglected. Not only discriminated against, women are also denied the freedom and opportunity to develop their full potentials. They are considered inferior to man in all respects. This is nothing but ignorance. On account of this ignorance, it is unfortunate today that respecting woman is considered a shame and unmanly. Organized or institutionalized religion is a powerful thing in that it can mold and shape the psyche, thinking, mindset, attitudes, conduct and behavior of its people. Misunderstanding, misinterpretation or misuse of the scriptural statements by the selfish and crafty priest class has been the main factor responsible for many ills in the human society including the woman's sorry plight. The Gurbani's (Sri Guru Granth Sahib) perspective is the Sikh perspective. To reawaken women and uplift their status in the society, plenty of feminine symbols have been used in the Gurbani. ਅਰਧ ਸਰੀਰੀ ਨਾਰਿ ਨ ਛੋਡੈ ...: Aradh sareeree naari na shodai ...: Woman is the other half of a man's body (ਮਨੁੱਖ ਦੇ ਜੀਵਨ ਦੀ ਹਰ ਵੇਲੇ ਦੀ ਸਾਂਝੀਵਾਲ, etc.), and she never leaves him... (sggs 477). ਹਰਿ ਪ੍ਰਭੁ ਮੇਰੇ ਬਾਬੁਲਾ ਹਰਿ ਦੇਵਹੁ ਦਾਨੁ ਮੈ ਦਾਜੋ ॥ ਹਰਿ ਕਪੜੋ ਹਰਿ ਸੋਭਾ ਦੇਵਹੁ ਜਿਤੁ ਸਵਰੈ ਮੇਰਾ ਕਾਜੋ ॥ ਹਰਿ ਹਰਿ ਭਗਤੀ ਕਾਜੁ ਸੁਹੇਲਾ ਗੁਰਿ ਸਤਿਗੁਰਿ ਦਾਨੁ ਦਿਵਾਇਆ ॥ ਖੰਡਿ ਵਰਭੰਡਿ ਹਰਿ ਸੋਭਾ ਹੋਈ ਇਹੁ ਦਾਨੁ ਨ ਰਲੈ ਰਲਾਇਆ ॥ ਹੋਰਿ ਮਨਮੁਖ ਦਾਜੁ ਜਿ ਰਖਿ ਦਿਖਾਲਹਿ ਸੁ ਕੂੜੁ ਅਹੰਕਾਰੁ ਕਚੁ ਪਾਜੋ ॥ ਹਰਿ ਪ੍ਰਭ ਮੇਰੇ ਬਾਬੁਲਾ ਹਰਿ ਦੇਵਹੁ ਦਾਨੁ ਮੈ ਦਾਜੋ ॥੪॥: Hari prabhu mere Baabulaa Hari devahu daanu mai daajo ...: O my father! Give me the Lord's Naam (Gur-Giaan, Aatam-Giaan, Shabad-Giaan ...) as my wedding gift / dowry. Give me the Lord's Naam as my clothes (wedding gown, etc.), and the Lord's Naam as my glory, to accomplish my task (of getting wedded to the Lord - Realization of the Mool ...). Through the Lord's Bhagti (Understanding of the Gurbani ...), this task (of wedding to the Lord) becomes easy (comfortable, charming, beautiful ...); the Satigur, has given this gift. (Through this gift of the Lord's Name, one's) glory (ਸੋਭਾ) pervades across the continents, and throughout the Universe. This gift is such that no other (dowry) is equal to it (ਇਹ ਦਾਜ ਐਸਾ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਇਸ ਨਾਲ ਹੋਰ ਕੋਈ ਦਾਜ ਬਰਾਬਰੀ ਨਹੀਂ ਕਰ ਸਕਦਾ). Any other dowry, which the Manmukhs (self-willed ...) place for show, is only false egotism, and a false display (of falsehood). O my father! Give me the Lord's Naam (Gur-Giaan, Aatam-Giaan, Shabad-Giaan ...) as my wedding gift / dowry. ||4|| (sggs 78). At the time of the Gurus, Satee Praathaa was prevalent in the Indian society. The Satee Prathaa involved the woman burning herself alive on the funeral pyre of her husband, either willingly or thrown forcefully into the pyre without her consent. The third Sikh Guru, Guru Amar Das Sahib, strongly crusaded against this evil practice of this Satee Praathaa and paid special attention to improve the status of women in the society. ਸਲੋਕੁ ਮਃ ੩ ॥ ਸਤੀਆ ਏਹਿ ਨ ਆਖੀਅਨਿ ਜੋ ਮੜਿਆ ਲਗਿ ਜਲੰਨ੍ਹ੍ਹਿ ॥ ਨਾਨਕ ਸਤੀਆ ਜਾਣੀਅਨ੍ਹ੍ਹਿ ਜਿ ਬਿਰਹੇ ਚੋਟ ਮਰੰਨ੍ਹ੍ਹਿ ॥੧॥ ਮਃ ੩ ॥ ਭੀ ਸੋ ਸਤੀਆ ਜਾਣੀਅਨਿ ਸੀਲ ਸੰਤੋਖਿ ਰਹੰਨ੍ਹ੍ਹਿ ॥ ਸੇਵਨਿ ਸਾਈ ਆਪਣਾ ਨਿਤ ਉਠਿ ਸੰਮ੍ਹ੍ਹਾਲੰਨ੍ਹ੍ਹਿ ॥੨॥: Slok Ma: 3 || Sateeaa ehi na aakheean jo marriaa lag jalannih. Nanak sateeaa jaaneeanih ji birahe chot marannih ||1||. Ma: 3 || Bhee so sateeaa jaaneean seel santokh rahanih. Sevan saaee aapnaa nit uth samhaalanih ||2||: Slok Ma: 3. Do not call them "Satee", who burn themselves along with their husbands' corpses. O Nanak, they alone are known as "Satee", who die from the shock of separation (from their Husband Lord) ||1||. Ma: 3. They are also to be considered as "Satee" who abide in modesty and contentment. And cherish the Lord ever and call on Him ||2|| (sggs 787).