Coherence in Quran

Discussion in 'Islam' started by farhan, May 23, 2007.

  1. farhan

    farhan Well-Known Member

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    One of the long-standing objections levelled against the Qur'ān by its non-Muslim critics is that it appears to have no regular form or structure. It is said that its verses follow one another with little sense of interconnection and its sūrahs seem to have been arranged in a sequence based on the crude principle of diminishing length, the longest coming first and the shortest going to the end. Almost every sūrah, it is complained, is riddled with unsettling shifts of scene, address, and subject and one cannot with any amount of certainty predict what is going to come next. It is concluded that the Qur'ān is, at best, a remarkable compilation of unrelated passages, or a book of quotations.
    Is The Qur'an A Shapeless Book?


    According to Amin Ahsan Islahi

    1. The surahs of the Qur’an are divided into seven discrete groups. Each group has a distinct theme. Every group begins with one or more Makkan Surah and ends with one or more Madinan Surah. In each group, the Makkan Surahs always precede the Madinan ones. The relationship between the Makkan Surahs and Madinan Surahs of each group is that of the root of a tree and its branches.

    2. In every group, the various phases of the Prophet Muhammad’s mission are depicted.

    3. Two surahs of each group form a pair such that each member of the pair complements the other in various ways. Surah Fatihah, however, is an exception to this pattern: it is an introduction to the whole of the Qur’an as well as to the first group which begins with it. There are also some surahs which have a specific purpose and fall in this paired-surah scheme in a particular way.

    4. Each surah has specific addressees and a central theme around which the contents of the surah revolve. Every surah has distinct subsections to mark thematic shifts, and every subsection is paragraphed to mark smaller shifts.
    Following is a brief description of the seven Qur’anic groups:

    Group I {Surah Fatihah (1) - Surah Maidah (5)}
    Central Theme: Islamic Law.

    Group II {Surah An‘am (6) - Surah Tawbah (9)}
    Central Theme: The consequences of denying the Prophet (sws) for the Mushrikin of Makkah.

    Group III {Surah Yunus (10) - Surah Nur (24)}
    Central Theme: Glad tidings of the Prophet Muhammad’s domination in Arabia.

    Group IV {Surah Furqan (25) - Surah Ahzab (33 }
    Central Theme: Arguments that substantiate the prophethood of Muhammad (sws) and the requirements of faith in him.

    Group V {Surah Saba (34) - Surah Hujrat (49)}
    Central Theme: Arguments that substantiate the belief of Tawhid and the requirements of faith in this belief.

    Group VI {Surah Qaf (50) - Surah Tahrim (66)}
    Central Theme: Arguments that substantiate the belief of Akhirah and the requirements of faith in this belief.

    Group VII {Surah Mulk (67) - Surah Nas (114)}
    Central Theme: Admonition (indhar) to the Quraysh about their fate in the Herein and the Hereafter if they deny the Prophet (sws).
    http://www.amin-ahsan-islahi.com/?=71


    Coherence in group 2

    This group is composed of four surahs: An‘am (6), A‘raf (7), Anfal (8), and Tawbah (9) in that order. The first two are Makkan while the two latter ones are Madinan. The central theme of the group is: retribution by the Prophet (sws) and his companions on all the religious groups who had denied the truth in spite of being convinced about it.

    The Quraysh claimed to be the followers of Abraham (sws) and heirs to the religion established by him. An‘am accuses them of distorting the religion of Abraham (sws), presents Islam as the true Abrahamic religion, and invites them to become Muslims. Since the Quraysh were meant to be the direct recipients of the Islamic message, the next surah, Araf, warns them of the grave consequence of rejecting the message. The third surah, Anfal, instructs the Muslims to unite under the banner of Islam in preparation for a confrontation with the Quraysh. Tawbah, the last surah in the group, throws an ultimatum to all the adversaries of the Prophet (sws). The four surahs would thus appear to be systematically arranged in the Qur’an. Anam is a surah of invitation: in invites the Quraysh to embrace Islam. A‘raf is a surah of warning: it warns the Quraysh against repudiating Islam. Anfal is a surah of preparation: it exhorts the Muslims to prepare for combat with the Quraysh. Tawbah is a su#rah of war: it announce war against the Quraysh, the People of the Book and the Hypocrites for their unfaithfulness to the religion of Abraham, declares Muslims to be the rightful heirs to that religion, and replaces the Quraysh by Muslims as the custodians of the Ka‘bah – the symbol and legacy of the Abrahamic religion.

    This is an incisive analysis of the central themes of the four surahs and of the relationship between the surahs. It needs to be appreciated that a greater affinity will be found to exist between surahs 6 (An‘am) and 7 (Araf), and 8 (Anfal) and 9 (Tawbah), than, for example, between surahs 6 and 8 or 7 and 9. A number of verses in surah 6 (like verses 5-6, 22-24, 30-31, 42-45, 49, 65, 92, 157-158) contain themes that are discussed more elaborately in surah 7. Similarly, a number of verses in surah 8 (like verses 5-12, 15-16, 19, 34, 39, 41-45, 60-62, 64-65) introduce themes that find a fuller treatment in surah 9. Such close affinity, as we said, does not exist between surahs 6 and 8 or 7 and 9. This fact should remind us that, in the scheme of surah-pairs, su#rahs 6 and 7 form one pair, and surahs 8 and 9, another pair. In effect, what this means is that, in studying the Nazm of a surah-group, it is helpful to keep in mind the Nazm of the surah-pairs that make up the surah-group. This would facilitate the establishment of Nazm connections in a group-for it is easier to see Nazm connections between larger, and fewer, units. More important, the interaction of surah-pairs, and not simply of individual surahs, would yield a wider, richer perspective for the study of the relationship between Qur’anic surahs. Incidentally, just as a surah is a self-contained whole, but assumes a complementary character upon becoming a member of a surah-pair, so a surah-pair, in itself a self-contained whole, becomes complementary to the other pair or pairs with which it forms a surah-group.

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  2. Muslimwoman

    Muslimwoman Coexistence insha'Allah

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    Thank you Faran a very good read.
     
  3. inhumility

    inhumility Active Member

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    Hi
    I agree that Quran has a miraculous and natural coherence, it is in fact a book of systems if one could realize it.
    Thanks
    I am an Ahmadi – a peaceful faith in Islam bridging gaps between faiths/denominations/religions/agnosticsThe West, as I understand, due to certain disinformation has seen only MullahIslam or MullahShariah; the true face of Muhammad’sIslam and PromisedMessiahImamMahdi’sIslam is yet hidden from their eyes, which is truly speaking only peaceful.
     
  4. farhan

    farhan Well-Known Member

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  5. Al Debaran

    Al Debaran Member

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    Salaam Farhaan

    A fascinating read. Thank You.
     
  6. menj

    menj Member

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    There are tons of works on the subject...I will see if I can bring it online once I gather the material together.
     
  7. Amica

    Amica Well-Known Member

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    Farhan--
    Salaam. Great post. But keep in mind this. The Noble Qur'an tells us why some are unable to understand:
    1) they approach the Book with no good intentions (Do they not consider the Qur'an (with care)? Had it been from other than Allah, they would surely have found therein much discrepancy. [Qur'an 4:82])
    2) they do not believe (And what has been sent down to thee from thy Lord will surely increase many of them in insolence and unbelief; so grieve not for the people of the unbelievers. S. 5:66, 68 )
    3) they do not ponder the meaning of its verses (since they are people who WILL NOT to believe, to consider the Truth, they are unable to understand the Qur'an; they are like cattle, according to the Noble Qur'an: blinded despite the sight, deaf despite the ears, dumb despite the reason).

    The third may come later, but the first one is essential with any non-Muslim.
     
  8. Summia Rehmaan

    Summia Rehmaan New Member

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    Jazakallah for information with proper refrences..
     

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