The Three major oldest civilizations in the world are Egypt, Sumer, and the Indus Valley. The latter lasted until 1500 BC. Scholars most usually say that the language was Dravidian and that the Aryans did not arrive until 2200-1500 BC, while its climax was in 2700-2400 BC. Until scholars do DNA tests on lots of skeletons I think this question will not be solved for the scholars collectively and we won't have a single definite answer as to what their ethnicity and language group were. Based on the theory that the language was Dravidian, some attempts have been made to decipher the Harappan writings, but those writings are also a mystery. I think that to solve it we will have to begin with the DNA tests and work from there, based on the language. This brings us to our next question - of religion. We can see that Hinduism is a mix of Indo-European figures like Indra and local deities, probably including Krishna. Hinduism has changed over 3000 years+, with some deities getting less attention, like Dyaus Pita. So based on our knowledge of archeaology and with support from Hinduism, can we say reliably who the gods of the Indus civilization were? Robert Speer writes in The Handbook of Tibetan Buddhist Symbols about a Shiva Pashupati seal found from the Harappans with Shiva and deer, and about the wheel symbol referring to the sun: However, I don't know of any Shiva seal with deer. I only know of a Shiva Pashupati-like seal from there and also a Celtic seal from Europe that resembles it with a deer: I did find a separate image of a deity fighting two tigers beneath a wheel symbol, which brings to mind for me the image of the sun in the sky: A website by Swami Nathan claims about this image: However, the figure in the seal looks a bit like a woman with a breast and a big puff of hair, so I am skeptical that it is Indra. And I'm skeptical that it's a "chakra", because it looks like a Dharma wheel instead. The same author says: So this author basically undermines his claim that it's Indra by saying that it's a "female figure" that he calls a "tiger goddess". Here is what seems to me to be another Indus tablet with a different heading on the same story of a figure fighting two tigers: Swami Nathan writes more on the theme of a tiger-fighting goddess here: He proposes these analogies in Hinduism for the tiger seals: He then shows a modern Hindu drawing of the goddess Durga riding a tiger. Another website called "Indus Script code deciphered" does show what looks more like a Chakra sign from an Indus valley seal: When it talks about the Sanctum of the Goddess, I think it might mean the goddess Amman. But I am not sure what the circular hole is that this passage is referring to. I am not even sure that it's a chakra symbol in the lower right of the tablet in the picture. It looks more to me like a Dharma wheel with a flower symbol of petals on the outer rim of the wheel. These are Chakras: SOURCE: http://www.kacha-stones.com/chakras.htm Stephen Knapp claims in "The Power of the Dharma: An Introduction to Hinduism and Vedic Culture" that "Statiues of Rishabha, the firsth Thirthankara and founder of Jainism, were found in Mohenjadaro and Harappa excavations. " But I think he could be mistaken, because I heard that some Jains were guessing that the image that looked like Shiva Pashupati from the Harappan findings was Rishabha. So what do you think about who the gods were of the Harappan civilization? Do you think that concepts like Om, the Chakra, the Swastika, and the Dharma wheel were part of Indus civilization, and were they connected to perceptions of God?