? about the Great Pyramid... Kindest Regards to all! I have a puzzle perhaps some could help with. I borrowed a current humanities textbook from a friend to find some information about the Great Pyramid at Giza and the socio-cultural events surrounding it, in effect looking at a snap-shot of human cultural evolution. Concerning the Pyramid, I often hear of the wonderful intricacy, the detail, the obstacles to overcome, how it would still be impossible to recreate even with today's technology, the esoteric meanings hidden in the form and placement, etc. All of this implies a great deal of knowledge and forethought, and experience, which is fine. That is, until one places it in context with other socio-cultural events. The text places the construction of the Great Pyramid between the years 2530-2470 B.C. Apparently this is within the time commonly ascribed as "Neolithic" (New Stone Age). Bronze had only recently (500 years previously) been developed by the addition of tin to copper about 3000 B.C. in Mesopotamia. The text is unclear as to whether or not Egypt had and used bronze implements around the time of pyramid construction, stating later that is was not until 1674 B.C. when the Hyksos invaded northern Egypt, that bronze (in the form of weapons) was introduced along with horse-drawn chariots. Iron was not introduced until much later still. By 3000 B.C. Egypt had well-developed agriculture with irrigation, and hieroglyphic writing. At about the same time the pyramid was being built, the Great Sphinx was begun and papyrus was introduced. To keep things in context, the Mesopotamian cultures had their fair share of technological breakthroughs and marvels by this time as well, but the Great Pyramid has always stood as such a shining example of what man can do... Yet we can't do the same today? Was there some quantum leap in rational ability amongst humanity somewhere between 9000-3000 B.C.? A leap that, truth be told, is beyond us now? Have we somehow regressed in our mental capacities and capabilities? The text mentions the pyramid being constructed of limestone and granite. How did a people, however brilliant, carve granite without metal implements, or at best copper implements? I also seem to recall the outer casing being of marble. It is one thing to focus on the transportation and heavy lifting issues, remarkable in themselves. But how could these megaliths be carved at quarry to within acutely accurate and fine tolerances unmatched for millennia without metal carving tools? If the only metallurgy available to Egypt at the time was copper, the carving of stone would be pretty limited I would think, including harder forms of limestone. In effect, are we to believe stone age humans built what we know as the Pyramid? Obviously the project was accomplished, and stands as testimony to this day. But there are far more questions it raises than it answers. Or so it seems, to me. Any thoughts?